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What is Hypothyroidism?
Hypothyroidism also called as under active thyroid is condition of endocrine system, were thyroid gland doesnot produce enough thyroid hormones.
It is very common medical condition nowadays.The hormones produced by the thyroid gland affect the metabolism of the body. The hormones in general control how energy is used in the body and the resulting rate at which the different organs function in your body.
Signs and Symptoms
The most common signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism include:
- feeling cold
- dry skin
- weight gain
- muscle weakness
- decreased sweating
- slowed heart rate
- elevated blood cholesterol
- pain and stiffness in your joints
- dry, thinning hair
- impaired memory
- fertility difficulties or menstrual changes
- muscle stiffness, aches, and tenderness
- puffy, sensitive face
- thinning and falling of hair
Hypothyroidism is caused by
- inadequate function of the gland itself (primary hypothyroidism),
- inadequate stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland (secondary hypothyroidism), or
- inadequate release of thyrotropin-releasing hormone from the brain’s hypothalamus (tertiary hypothyroidism).
Primary hypothyroidism is most common in all three.
Hypothyroidism can be caused by a number of factors such as:
Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis: This is a condition in which the thyroid gland gets inflamed. Also known as Thyroiditis, this occurs when the body’s immune system attacks the thyroid gland and destroys it.
Iodine Deficiency: The thyroid gland needs iodine to be able to produce T3 and T4 hormones. Since our bodies do not produce iodine, we are dependent on the foods we consume to provide the required amount of iodine to the body. Foods that are rich in iodine include milk and milk-based products, saltwater fishes, eggs, bananas, yoghurt, strawberries, cranberries, green beans, and white bread.
Pregnancy : During pregnancy, some women tend to develop an inflamed thyroid. This condition is also known as postpartum thyroiditis. Though the cause for it is unknown, after a certain time span, the thyroid hormone levels return to normal in these women.
Radiation Therapy: Radiation given to the thyroid gland can reduce its production of hormones.
Certain medications: Some medicines can interfere with normal production of thyroid hormone. Lithium, for example, is one of the most common medicines that causes hypothyroidism.
Growth in the thyroid: Thyroid nodules are abnormal overgrowths of tissue in the thyroid gland that are most often benign—but may be cancerous in some people.
Genetic Causes: Damaged genes can also cause hypothyroidism. The causes are generally detected during infancy.
Problem With The Hypothalamus
Pituitary Gland Disorder: The pituitary gland turn controls the thyroid gland among others. Therefore, any abnormal functioning of the pituitary gland affects the thyroid gland
Some people such as the following are more prone to hypothyroidism than others such as:
- family history of hypothyroidism
- previous history of thyroid problems
- autoimmune disorders such as Diabetes Type 1, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, Addison’s disease, pernicious anemia, or vitiligo
- down syndrome
- Turner syndrome
- bipolar disorder